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How To Get A Jtag/Rgh online

Discussion in 'Modding Tutorials' started by Cinnamon, Mar 24, 2012 with 14 replies and 3,998 views.

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  1. Cinnamon

    Cinnamon Enthusiast

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    By Cinnamon Hope it works
    this is everything you need to know on getting your jtag online below may take a while to read
    In the Hardware Setup dialog box you can add JTAG servers. A JTAG server allows different applications to share access to JTAG cables (such as the ByteBlaster cable). Clients connect to the server using a TCP/IP connection. You can access JTAG cables connected to a remote computer, which is useful when you use an operating system that has no fast JTAG hardware available.

    You can specify that remote clients should be enabled to connect to the JTAG server in the Configure Local JTAG Server dialog box, which you can access from the JTAG Settings tab of the Hardware Setup dialog box.

    You can specify the remote server you want to connect to in the Add Server dialog box. When you connect to a remote server, the programming hardware that you attached to the remote server is displayed in the Hardware Settings tab.

    Today's most common case is a dongle with a JTAG cable on one side (such as a ribbon cable with a 10-pin or 20-pin IDC connector) and a USB cable on the other. Instead of USB, some cables use Ethernet; older ones may use a PC parallel port, or even a serial port.

    Start with power to your target board turned off, and nothing connected to your JTAG adapter. If you're particularly paranoid, unplug power to the board. It's important to have the ground signal properly set up, unless you are using a JTAG adapter which provides galvanic isolation between the target board and the debugging host.
    Be sure it's the right kind of JTAG connector. If your dongle has a 20-pin ARM connector, you need some kind of adapter (or octopus, see below) to hook it up to boards using 14-pin or 10-pin connectors ... or to 20-pin connectors which don't use ARM's pinout.
    In the same vein, make sure the voltage levels are compatible. Not all JTAG adapters have the level shifters needed to work with 1.2 Volt boards.

    Be certain the cable is properly oriented or you might damage your board. In most cases there are only two possible ways to connect the cable. Connect the JTAG cable from your adapter to the board. Be sure it's firmly connected.
    In the best case, the connector is keyed to physically prevent you from inserting it wrong. This is most often done using a slot on the board's male connector housing, which must match a key on the JTAG cable's female connector. If there's no housing, then you must look carefully and make sure pin 1 on the cable hooks up to pin 1 on the board. Ribbon cables are frequently all grey except for a wire on one edge, which is red. The red wire is pin 1.

    Sometimes dongles provide cables where one end is an octopus of color coded single-wire connectors, instead of a connector block. These are great when converting from one JTAG pinout to another, but are tedious to set up. Use these with connector pinout diagrams to help you match up the adapter signals to the right board pins.

    Connect the adapter's other end once the JTAG cable is connected. A USB, parallel, or serial port connector will go to the host which you are using to run OpenOCD. For Ethernet, consult the documentation and your network administrator.
    For USB based JTAG adapters you have an easy sanity check at this point: does the host operating system see the JTAG adapter? If that host is an MS-Windows host, you'll need to install a driver before OpenOCD works.

    Connect the adapter's power supply, if needed. This step is primarily for non-USB adapters, but sometimes USB adapters need extra power.
    Power up the target board. Unless you just let the magic smoke escape, you're now ready to set up the OpenOCD server so you can use JTAG to work with that board.
    Talk with the OpenOCD server using telnet (telnet localhost 4444 on many systems) or GDB.

    There are many ways you can configure OpenOCD and start it up.

    A simple way to organize them all involves keeping a single directory for your work with a given board. When you start OpenOCD from that directory, it searches there first for configuration files, scripts, files accessed through semihosting, and for code you upload to the target board. It is also the natural place to write files, such as log files and data you download from the board.

    There are two basic ways of configuring OpenOCD, and a variety of ways you can mix them. Think of the difference as just being how you start the server:

    Many -f file or -c command options on the command line
    No options, but a user config file in the current directory named openocd.cfg
    Here is an example openocd.cfg file for a setup using a Signalyzer FT2232-based JTAG adapter to talk to a board with an Atmel AT91SAM7X256 microcontroller:

    source [find interface/signalyzer.cfg]

    # GDB can also flash my flash!
    gdb_memory_map enable
    gdb_flash_program enable

    source [find target/sam7x256.cfg]
    Here is the command line equivalent of that configuration:

    openocd -f interface/signalyzer.cfg \
    -c "gdb_memory_map enable" \
    -c "gdb_flash_program enable" \
    -f target/sam7x256.cfg
    You could wrap such long command lines in shell scripts, each supporting a different development task. One might re-flash the board with a specific firmware version. Another might set up a particular debugging or run-time environment.

    Important: At this writing (October 2009) the command line method has problems with how it treats variables. For example, after -c "set VAR value", or doing the same in a script, the variable VAR will have no value that can be tested in a later script.
    Here we will focus on the simpler solution: one user config file, including basic configuration plus any TCL procedures to simplify your work.

    A user configuration file ties together all the parts of a project in one place. One of the following will match your situation best:

    Ideally almost everything comes from configuration files provided by someone else. For example, OpenOCD distributes a scripts directory (probably in /usr/share/openocd/scripts on Linux). Board and tool vendors can provide these too, as can individual user sites; the -s command line option lets you say where to find these files. (See Running.) The AT91SAM7X256 example above works this way.
    Three main types of non-user configuration file each have their own subdirectory in the scripts directory:

    interface one for each different debug adapter;
    board one for each different board
    target the chips which integrate CPUs and other JTAG TAPs
    Best case: include just two files, and they handle everything else. The first is an interface config file. The second is board-specific, and it sets up the JTAG TAPs and their GDB targets (by deferring to some target.cfg file), declares all flash memory, and leaves you nothing to do except meet your deadline:

    source [find interface/olimex-jtag-tiny.cfg]
    source [find board/csb337.cfg]
    Boards with a single microcontroller often won't need more than the target config file, as in the AT91SAM7X256 example. That's because there is no external memory (flash, DDR RAM), and the board differences are encapsulated by application code.

    Maybe you don't know yet what your board looks like to JTAG. Once you know the interface.cfg file to use, you may need help from OpenOCD to discover what's on the board. Once you find the JTAG TAPs, you can just search for appropriate target and board configuration files ... or write your own, from the bottom up. See Autoprobing.
    You can often reuse some standard config files but need to write a few new ones, probably a board.cfg file. You will be using commands described later in this User's Guide, and working with the guidelines in the next chapter.
    For example, there may be configuration files for your JTAG adapter and target chip, but you need a new board-specific config file giving access to your particular flash chips. Or you might need to write another target chip configuration file for a new chip built around the Cortex M3 core.

    Note: When you write new configuration files, please submit them for inclusion in the next OpenOCD release. For example, a board/newboard.cfg file will help the next users of that board, and a target/newcpu.cfg will help support users of any board using that chip.
    You may may need to write some C code. It may be as simple as a supporting a new ft2232 or parport based adapter; a bit more involved, like a NAND or NOR flash controller driver; or a big piece of work like supporting a new chip architecture.
    Reuse the existing config files when you can. Look first in the scripts/boards area, then scripts/targets. You may find a board configuration that's a good example to follow.

    When you write config files, separate the reusable parts (things every user of that interface, chip, or board needs) from ones specific to your environment and debugging approach.

    For example, a gdb-attach event handler that invokes the reset init command will interfere with debugging early boot code, which performs some of the same actions that the reset-init event handler does.
    Likewise, the arm9 vector_catch command (or its siblings xscale vector_catch and cortex_m3 vector_catch) can be a timesaver during some debug sessions, but don't make everyone use that either. Keep those kinds of debugging aids in your user config file, along with messaging and tracing setup. (See Software Debug Messages and Tracing.)
    You might need to override some defaults. For example, you might need to move, shrink, or back up the target's work area if your application needs much SRAM.
    TCP/IP port configuration is another example of something which is environment-specific, and should only appear in a user config file. See TCP/IP Ports.


    A few project-specific utility routines may well speed up your work. Write them, and keep them in your project's user config file.

    For example, if you are making a boot loader work on a board, it's nice to be able to debug the after it's loaded to RAM parts separately from the finicky early code which sets up the DDR RAM controller and clocks. A script like this one, or a more GDB-aware sibling, may help:

    proc ramboot { } {
    # Reset, running the target's "reset-init" scripts
    # to initialize clocks and the DDR RAM controller.
    # Leave the CPU halted.
    reset init

    # Load CONFIG_SKIP_LOWLEVEL_INIT version into DDR RAM.
    load_image u-boot.bin 0x20000000

    # Start running.
    resume 0x20000000
    }
    Then once that code is working you will need to make it boot from NOR flash; a different utility would help. Alternatively, some developers write to flash using GDB. (You might use a similar script if you're working with a flash based microcontroller application instead of a boot loader.)

    proc newboot { } {
    # Reset, leaving the CPU halted. The "reset-init" event
    # proc gives faster access to the CPU and to NOR flash;
    # "reset halt" would be slower.
    reset init

    # Write standard version of U-Boot into the first two
    # sectors of NOR flash ... the standard version should
    # do the same lowlevel init as "reset-init".
    flash protect 0 0 1 off
    flash erase_sector 0 0 1
    flash write_bank 0 u-boot.bin 0x0
    flash protect 0 0 1 on

    # Reboot from scratch using that new boot loader.
    reset run
    }
    You may need more complicated utility procedures when booting from NAND. That often involves an extra bootloader stage, running from on-chip SRAM to perform DDR RAM setup so it can load the main bootloader code (which won't fit into that SRAM).

    Other helper scripts might be used to write production system images, involving considerably more than just a three stage bootloader.

    Sometimes you may want to make some small changes to the software you're developing, to help make JTAG debugging work better. For example, in C or assembly language code you might use #ifdef JTAG_DEBUG (or its converse) around code handling issues like:

    Watchdog Timers... Watchog timers are typically used to automatically reset systems if some application task doesn't periodically reset the timer. (The assumption is that the system has locked up if the task can't run.) When a JTAG debugger halts the system, that task won't be able to run and reset the timer ... potentially causing resets in the middle of your debug sessions.
    It's rarely a good idea to disable such watchdogs, since their usage needs to be debugged just like all other parts of your firmware. That might however be your only option.

    Look instead for chip-specific ways to stop the watchdog from counting while the system is in a debug halt state. It may be simplest to set that non-counting mode in your debugger startup scripts. You may however need a different approach when, for example, a motor could be physically damaged by firmware remaining inactive in a debug halt state. That might involve a type of firmware mode where that "non-counting" mode is disabled at the beginning then re-enabled at the end; a watchdog reset might fire and complicate the debug session, but hardware (or people) would be protected.1

    ARM Semihosting... When linked with a special runtime library provided with many toolchains2, your target code can use I/O facilities on the debug host. That library provides a small set of system calls which are handled by OpenOCD. It can let the debugger provide your system console and a file system, helping with early debugging or providing a more capable environment for sometimes-complex tasks like installing system firmware onto NAND or SPI flash.
    ARM Wait-For-Interrupt... Many ARM chips synchronize the JTAG clock using the core clock. Low power states which stop that core clock thus prevent JTAG access. Idle loops in tasking environments often enter those low power states via the WFI instruction (or its coprocessor equivalent, before ARMv7).
    You may want to disable that instruction in source code, or otherwise prevent using that state, to ensure you can get JTAG access at any time.3 For example, the OpenOCD halt command may not work for an idle processor otherwise.

    Delay after reset... Not all chips have good support for debugger access right after reset; many LPC2xxx chips have issues here. Similarly, applications that reconfigure pins used for JTAG access as they start will also block debugger access.
    To work with boards like this, enable a short delay loop the first thing after reset, before "real" startup activities. For example, one second's delay is usually more than enough time for a JTAG debugger to attach, so that early code execution can be debugged or firmware can be replaced.

    Debug Communications Channel (DCC)... Some processors include mechanisms to send messages over JTAG. Many ARM cores support these, as do some cores from other vendors. (OpenOCD may be able to use this DCC internally, speeding up some operations like writing to memory.)
    Your application may want to deliver various debugging messages over JTAG, by linking with a small library of code provided with OpenOCD and using the utilities there to send various kinds of messages

    Chip vendors often provide software development boards which are highly configurable, so that they can support all options that product boards may require. Make sure that any jumpers or switches match the system configuration you are working with.

    Common issues include:

    JTAG setup ... Boards may support more than one JTAG configuration. Examples include jumpers controlling pullups versus pulldowns on the nTRST and/or nSRST signals, and choice of connectors (e.g. which of two headers on the base board, or one from a daughtercard). For some Texas Instruments boards, you may need to jumper the EMU0 and EMU1 signals (which OpenOCD won't currently control).
    Boot Modes ... Complex chips often support multiple boot modes, controlled by external jumpers. Make sure this is set up correctly. For example many i.MX boards from NXP need to be jumpered to "ATX mode" to start booting using the on-chip ROM, when using second stage bootloader code stored in a NAND flash chip.
    Such explicit configuration is common, and not limited to booting from NAND. You might also need to set jumpers to start booting using code loaded from an MMC/SD card; external SPI flash; Ethernet, UART, or USB links; NOR flash; OneNAND flash; some external host; or various other sources.

    Memory Addressing ... Boards which support multiple boot modes may also have jumpers to configure memory addressing. One board, for example, jumpers external chipselect 0 (used for booting) to address either a large SRAM (which must be pre-loaded via JTAG), NOR flash, or NAND flash. When it's jumpered to address NAND flash, that board must also be told to start booting from on-chip ROM.
    Your board.cfg file may also need to be told this jumper configuration, so that it can know whether to declare NOR flash using flash bank or instead declare NAND flash with nand device; and likewise which probe to perform in its reset-init handler.

    A closely related issue is bus width. Jumpers might need to distinguish between 8 bit or 16 bit bus access for the flash used to start booting.

    Peripheral Access ... Development boards generally provide access to every peripheral on the chip, sometimes in multiple modes (such as by providing multiple audio codec chips). This interacts with software configuration of pin multiplexing, where for example a given pin may be routed either to the MMC/SD controller or the GPIO controller. It also often interacts with configuration jumpers. One jumper may be used to route signals to an MMC/SD card slot or an expansion bus (which might in turn affect booting); others might control which audio or video codecs are used.
    Plus you should of course have reset-init event handlers which set up the hardware to match that jumper configuration. That includes in particular any oscillator or PLL used to clock the CPU, and any memory controllers needed to access external memory and peripherals. Without such handlers, you won't be able to access those resources without working target firmware which can do that setup ... this can be awkward when you're trying to debug that target firmware. Even if there's a ROM bootloader which handles a few issues, it rarely provides full access to all board-specific capabilities.

    In this it is how to get your jtag online if you understand and know just how to do it then congratulations
    D1G1TAL, xI Pumfay Ix and Habofro like this.
  2. Futile

    Futile Contributor

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    I don't even....

    Did you type all that out. I feel terrible if you did...

    Edit: Just saw it's from 2009. Epic Snail.
  3. Cinnamon

    Cinnamon Enthusiast

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    i did , hold on :( it says error .
  4. Cinnamon

    Cinnamon Enthusiast

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    There we go :)
  5. Cait Sith

    Cait Sith GIGITY GIGITY

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    GEEZUS This has got to be the longest TUT in the history of TUTs, just saying. I would give rep but it doesn't seem right if its from an older post sorry.
  6. M0j0j0-j0

    M0j0j0-j0 Getting There

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    TL;DR most likely a pile of bulls***.
    O5 Ace likes this.
  7. Orphan Carpet

    Orphan Carpet Cheeky Doggy

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    old tut is old
  8. WHITEGUY999

    WHITEGUY999 Enthusiast

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    hahahha*looks at title* oh hell yea I'm trying this! *sees long TUT* F it not that important :D
  9. xI PumfayHD Ix

    xI PumfayHD Ix ❤✔ MLP FTW ! ✔❤

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    Hey give the guy credit for at least trying... At least hes trying to contribute something Nice post may be old but still Nice post...
    WHITEGUY999 and TheItachiUchiha like this.
  10. WHITEGUY999

    WHITEGUY999 Enthusiast

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    oh no doubt its a nice post! but yea totally i think this guy is cool! :cool:
  11. Gloomy

    Gloomy Banned

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    I would rep but this doesnt work.... Its an older method
  12. run632

    run632 Member

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    Looks ok apart from being old and having the worst font colour in all history of ever..
  13. Monster Lobbyz

    Monster Lobbyz Newbie

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    nice tut bro welldone
  14. Call me LEWY

    Call me LEWY Maybe?

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    this is possible, but there is a much easier and cleaner way of doing it, by bypassing the HV challenges.
  15. Fire30

    Fire30 Senior Member

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    this isn't even for xbox lol....
    DR34D 0WNS and x Icewater101 x like this.